Evacuation is not an easy option on many low-lying islands. This tsunami was felt in Australia too, with wave heights up to 84 centimetres recorded in Sydney Harbour. Japan has also tested vertical structures, essentially tall platforms for people to stand on above the tsunami maximum height. As like most tsunami prone areas, Japan has developed a mixed strategy which primarily relies on evacuation rather than defense. Japan is arguably the most disaster-aware nation in the world, and has spent several decades developing mitigation strategies for a variety of hazards, including earthquakes and tsunamis. These are used to detect the presence of tsunami and track the direction and speed of their movement. Community Safety and Earth Monitoring Division at Geoscience Australia. A tsunami can travel at the speed of a commercial jet—around 640–960 kilometres per hour. The long wave length of tsunami means that they lose energy quite slowly, so they can travel vast distances and still wreak havoc when they hit a coastline. Fiction. The tsunami was also historical as its run-up height reached over 39 m. Some Japanese have tsunami stones to thank for the safety of their homes and lives: in Aneyoshi, a tsunami stone states, “ high dwellings ensure the peace and happiness of our descendants.” See Figure 2. Disasters: Learning from Japan's tsunami Source(s): The New Humanitarian (TNH) Bangkok - Japan is widely regarded as well-prepared for disasters, being used to frequent tsunamis, cyclones, earthquakes and volcanic activity, but a year after the calamitous events of 11 March 2011, the lessons from the multi-disaster still resonate. 11 - 20 of 500 . No known way to prevent a tsunami from occurring exists. No need for immediate alarm though—Earth is likely to be struck by an asteroid of that size every 26 million years or so. Japan first began researching response measures to Tsunamis in 1896. The Bureau of Meteorology manages an array of coastal sea level gauges and oceanic tsunami detection buoys and uses the information from these, along with the seismic information from Geoscience Australia, to select the appropriate pre-computed scenario, assess the ultimate tsunami risk and potential severity and then issues any appropriate warnings. A U.S. Marine helicopter loaded with food flies over Lampuuk in northern Sumatra after a tsunami killed most of the village's 7,000 residents–and nearly 230,000 people on … A number of Australian government agencies—the Bureau of Meteorology, Geoscience Australia and the Attorney General’s Department—all work together to support the Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre (JATWC). Unusually strong currents were reported in Sydney Harbour and Port Kembla, and some swimmers were swept into the lagoon at the coastal town of Merimbula in southern New South Wales. The concentration of the quake’s energy will impact the way the seismic waves propagate through the surrounding rock, and the rock types themselves can also affect the way seismic waves travel. We felt the effects of this tsunami in Australia, too, but with nowhere near the force that hit Japan. The quake shook the ground for 6 minutes. "Prevention Measures For The 2004 Indian Tsunami" Essays and Research Papers . Tsunami walls In Japan it is easy to find tsunami walls in many beaches built in the purpose of reducing the tsunami risk. These measures are often useless in the event that the triggering event occurs close to the coast. Having appropriate procedures in place to quickly assess the risk of a tsunami, issue effective and clear warnings and manage evacuation procedures are essential. These walls are many meters wide and also in some areas they are few kilometers in length. Ensuring residents who live in high-risk areas for tsunami are educated and aware of both the risks and appropriate actions to take in the event of a tsunami is also important. This effectively produces a building on stilts. Most ocean swell waves have a wave length of around 30–40 kilometres. Japan has taken Integrated Tsunami Mitigation Strategies where they are consisting of Structural and Non-Structural measures. If you're in a tsunami area and there is an earthquake, first drop to the floor, cover your head and neck, and hold on to something stable. The objective here was to allow for easier reconstruction rather than prevention of damage. Tsunami defense is an ongoing battle for the Japanese, so let's take a peek at Japan's engineering solutions to future tsunamis. Flooding covered an area of around 560 square kilometres. Tsunami Mitigation and Prevention . Note the vastness of the area across which the tsunami travels - Japan, which is over 17,000 km away from the tsunami's source off the coast of Chile, lost 200 lives to this tsunami. What’s more, remembering that tsunami are a series of waves, there’s not just one hit. Japan's location on the ring of fire, a geologically riotous area of the world, led to a long history of volcanism, earthquakes and tsunamis. Factors like the shape of the sea-bed, the water depth and the coastal landscape all affect the way tsunami travel and impact on coastal areas. The earthquake’s magnitude was 9.0, the strongest ever recorded in Japan. Under the revised plan, the government will put stronger measures ... National Dec 12, 2013 Japan to pledge ¥300 billion in aid to ASEAN for disaster prevention Tsunami can be caused by undersea landslides, or the slumping of large amounts of rock or sediment into the sea. The JATWC continues to monitor the event to see if it unfolds according to the prediction, and updates warnings and advice as necessary. ... A map of Japan showing coastal areas subject to tsunami … The earthquake was caused by the movement of the India plate and the Eurasia plate. Structural measures such as seawalls, embankments and tree plantations will be designed and built to defend people and properties against L1 tsunamis. Radioactive material was spilled into the surrounding environment—a serious nuclear disaster. This happens because Earth has two main types of crust—continental crust and oceanic crust. The epicentre of the earthquake was off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia. For example, an off-shore earthquake near Chile in 1960 sent waves speeding in all directions across the Pacific Ocean. Japan has taken steps to increase its own disaster preparedness since the devastating 2011 earthquake and tsunami. Many tsunami don't break as they hit land. They can be similar to a tide cycle occurring in just 10 to 60 minutes instead of 12 hours. Radioactive material was spilled into the surrounding environment—a serious nuclear disaster. But how does that uniqueness prepare them for a future tsunami? Also, the Japan Meteorological Agency has installed more than 200 seismic forecast stations across the country, and on a larger scale the Ministry of Disaster … Japan's National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) calculated a peak ground acceleration of 2.99 g (29.33 m/s 2). Nuclear facilities, in particular, have in recent years tended to be sited far from the coast, with "safe modes" as soon as an earthquake is detected. The word 'tsunami' is Japanese, meaning 'harbour waves'. The three problems are pointed out. Japan has tried to employ earthquake engineering to reduce damage onshore. The March 2011 event in Japan was the latest in a long series of earthquake and tsunami disasters. Four years ago, much of Japan’s northeastern coastline was ravaged by the magnitude 9.0 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.. Government of Japan: Tsunami forecasting system for the entire coast of Japan introduced through the Meteorological Business Act: 1977: National Land Agency “Guidance on Reinforcement of Tsunami Disaster Prevention Countermeasures in Local Disaster Prevention Planning” (revised guidelines from 1933): 1. The earthquake or other disturbance that causes a tsunami can impart a great deal of energy into the wave. Around 100 tsunami evacuation centres in Sendai were affected by the tsunami during the Tōhoku event in 2011, highlighting the importance of continuous risk-assessment. The disaster saw large-scale power outages, three moderate meltdowns at the Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant, more than 18,000 people killed, and it caused damages to the country estimated to be worth about US$34 billion. 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